COVID-19 Vaccines for Cancer Patients and Survivors: What We Know

Medically Reviewed By: Nicolas C. Issa, MD

Dana-Farber strongly encourages all patients to get a COVID-19 vaccine to protect themselves and their loved ones.

You should get a COVID-19 vaccination even if you were previously infected with the virus. The vaccine may help trigger a bigger immune response, which better prepares the body to fight off the coronavirus. If you recently had a COVID-19 infection, you are eligible to get the vaccine as soon as you are symptom-free and have completed your required isolation period.

To find COVID-19 vaccination locations, visit If you live outside of Massachusetts, visit

COVID-19 vaccines for cancer patients and those out of active treatment

Dana-Farber recommends that both cancer survivors and active patients on therapy should receive the COVID-19 vaccine.

Furthermore, it is also recommended all Dana-Farber transplant and cellular therapy patients strongly consider vaccination once 100 days have elapsed from transplant or cellular therapy.

Throughout vaccine distribution, Dana-Farber will continue to proactively ensure that patients, families and staff remain safe and protected. Learn more about measures the Institute is taking, including face masks, physical distancing, frequent disinfecting, and more.

Remember: Oncologists, nurses, and other professionals at Dana-Farber are sources of support and information for patients who have questions during this time. Dana-Farber will also continue to provide information as soon as it is available.

[For the latest information about COVID-19 vaccines, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.]

Do I need additional shots/booster shots? How do I know if I’m eligible for one?

The CDC recommends a vaccine booster dose for anyone who has completed their primary vaccination series. For non-immunocompromised individuals, the primary vaccination series is either two doses of the FDA-approved Moderna, or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, or one dose of the FDA-approved Johnson & Johnson/Jansen COVID-19 vaccine. 

For some moderately or severely immunocompromised people (including most cancer patients), the CDC recommends an additional or third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine as part the primary vaccination series. That third/additional dose should be at least 28 days after their second dose and you should try to get the same vaccine that you received for your first two doses.

Learn more here.

Melissa Houston, RN, BSN, a Dana-Farber oncology nurse for 17 years, beams after getting her Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine.

Is a COVID-19 vaccine safe?

In developing a COVID-19 vaccine, the FDA established a new, rigorous process to determine the safety and effectiveness of each vaccine candidate. Vaccines that are made available in the United States by approval or emergency use authorization have met this high safety and effectiveness standard.

Furthermore, once a vaccine is authorized or approved, it is continuously monitored for any adverse events (such as side effects). If something abnormal is detected, experts will quickly study it further to see if it’s a true safety concern. This helps ensure the benefits outweigh any potential risks for individuals who receive the vaccine.

Finally, each batch of every vaccine is tested for quality and safety to ensure that the vaccine works like it is supposed to, and that it is not contaminated with certain ingredients used during production or outside germs.

“The effectiveness of initial COVID-19 vaccines exceeded the expectations of many experts, and all vaccine candidates must meet the gold standard for safety,” explains Dana-Farber President and CEO Laurie H. Glimcher, MD.

Is the vaccine safe for cancer patients?

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network, an alliance of 31 leading cancer centers across the U.S., recommends that all oncology patients currently in treatment receive the COVID-10 vaccine, and that their caregivers and household members should be immunized as well. Based on evidence from flu vaccinations, the data suggest that patients with cancer would be able to mount some level of protective immune response, though a number of factors may affect the level of response. Additional research on effectiveness and safety for these patients is ongoing.

At this point, there is limited information on how immunocompromised patients may respond to the vaccine. An Israeli study found that patients being treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia had a significantly lower antibody response after being vaccinated than healthy volunteers did.

If you have specific questions regarding any vaccine, specifically in regard to how it pertains to your cancer care, be sure to speak with your care team.

Can I spread COVID-19 to someone else if I’ve received a vaccine?

Emerging evidence about whether vaccinated people can still spread COVID-19 to others looks good so far. In other words, early data suggests that vaccines keep you safe and keep people around you safe.

“Two recent studies show some pretty favorable results — one from the UK that found that two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine cut down by 86 percent someone’s chances of developing an infection that they could pass along, the other a study in Israel that found an 89.4 percent reduction (though it should be noted that the Israeli study has yet to be fully released),” notes Vox. Scientists hope to learn more soon.

Remember: We’re learning more every day, and the data look good. Dana-Farber recommends getting a COVID-19 vaccine when you can, considering how safe and effective they are.

How long does it take to become immune following complete vaccination?

It typically takes a few weeks for the body to build immunity following vaccination. Early research into the two vaccines currently available in the U.S. indicate that individuals will begin to build immunity to the virus 10 to 14 days following their first dose, with full immunity typically appearing seven to 14 days following the second.

Does the vaccine protect against emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2?

There is currently limited information regarding the effectiveness of FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines against emerging strains of the virus. Early research indicates the vaccine may be more protective against some variants than others.

The discovery of emerging strains does not change the recommendations for vaccination, and people should not put off receiving the vaccine in the hopes of getting one that is potentially more effective against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

For the latest information on COVID-19, talk to your care team or visit the Dana-Farber website.

4 thoughts on “COVID-19 Vaccines for Cancer Patients and Survivors: What We Know”

  1. Thank you for your clear statements re cancer patient ability to receive vaccinations especially Covid 19 vaccines.

  2. Thank you for this valuable information. I am 3 years post Allo transplant with many complications that have left me with a very weak immune system. I hope I will be able to get this vaccine when it is my turn. I trust my transplant team at DFCI institute to guide me through this process.

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