大多数人自出生起体内就有两个肾脏（kidneys），它们分别位于脊柱两侧胸廓以下（ribcage）的部位。肾脏的功能有过滤血液及生产尿液（urine），以及生产用以调节血压（blood pressure）、生产红血细胞（red blood cells）及帮助维持强壮健康骨骼的激素（hormones）。
感染人类免疫缺陷病毒（human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)）或获得性免疫缺乏综合征（艾滋病，AIDS）的人群比没有感染这两种病毒的人们更容易患上某些癌症。事实上，正因为有些类型的癌症在艾滋病人群中很常见，所以这类癌症也被称为“艾滋病相关癌症（AIDS-related）”或“艾滋病定义性癌症（AIDS-defining cancers）”——包括卡波西肉瘤（Kaposi’s sarcoma）、宫颈浸润癌（invasive cervical cancer）以及非霍奇金淋巴瘤（on-Hodgkin lymphoma）。倘若一个感染了HIV病毒的患者又被确诊患有上述任何一种癌症，那么这位患者的癌症可加速艾滋病以及与艾滋病相关癌症的恶化。 卡波西肉瘤（Kaposi’s sarcoma）是一种始于连接血管或淋巴结（lymph nodes）的细胞的癌症。卡波西肉瘤可扩散到身体的其它组织。在绝大多数病例中，它可引发皮肤或口腔内出现深紫色或深棕色的斑点。卡波西肉瘤的症状包括：淋巴结肿大、不明原因的发热或体重减轻。 宫颈浸润性癌（invasive cervical cancer）是一种在子宫颈（cervix）组织上形成的癌症，当癌细胞更深层次地侵袭子宫颈时，它就具有了浸润性。宫颈浸润性癌症与人类乳头状瘤病毒（human papilloma virus (HPV)）有极强的关联性，而人类乳头状瘤病毒是一种与HIV病毒相关类型的感染，巴氏子宫颈涂片检查（PAP tests）可帮助医生检查人类乳头状瘤病毒。宫颈浸润性癌症的症状可包括：阴道异常出血、异常液体流出，或有性行为时感到疼痛。 至于非霍奇金淋巴瘤，癌细胞在淋巴系统（lymph system）中形成，并且可以扩散到身体其它部位。非霍奇金淋巴瘤有很多分类，但是其中有一些在艾滋病患者群体中更常见，如：弥漫性大B-细胞淋巴瘤（diffuse large B-cell lymphoma）、B-细胞免疫母细胞性淋巴瘤（B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma），以及小且非裂解细胞或伯基特淋巴瘤（small non-cleaved cell or Burkitt lymphoma）。非霍奇金淋巴瘤的症状可包括：不明原因的体重骤降或发热、夜间盗汗、无痛性淋巴结肿大，以及肋骨以下有饱腹感——尽管这些症状也适用于其它疾病。 感染HIV病毒的人们亦更有患上以下疾病的风险：肛门癌（anal cancer）、肝癌（liver cancer）、肺癌（lung cancer）以及霍奇金淋巴瘤（Hodgkin lymphoma）。 了解更多内容: 霍奇金淋巴瘤和非霍奇金淋巴瘤的区别是什么？ 关于宫颈癌筛查的五个必知事项 丹娜—法伯癌症研究所血液肿瘤治疗中心（The Hematologic Oncology Treatment Center at Dana-Farber） HIV病毒不仅能弱化免疫系统（immune system），还可危害人体对抗感染的能力。因此，感染HIV病毒的患者们也会感染引发某些癌症的其它病毒，包括: 人类8型疱疹病毒（human herpesvirus 8）、人类疱疹病毒第四型（Epstein Barr virus，EBV）、人类乳头状瘤病毒（HPV）、乙肝病毒（Hepatitis B）以及丙肝病毒（Hepatitis C virus）。 … Read more
Andrew Hedberg过了一个不平凡的春天。即将升入高二的他加入了大学高尔夫运动队，也当选了下一学年的班级代表。最重要的是，曾经危害到他的生命和左腿的骨癌（bone cancer）仍在康复中。
Common infections, such as those that cause the common cold, do not cause cancer or make cancer more likely to occur. However, infections with specific types of viruses, bacteria, or parasites can increase an individual’s risk for certain kinds of cancer.
So far, CDK4/6 inhibitors have been shown to be most effective in treating advanced estrogen-receptor positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.
As scientists map ever more of the epigenetic disruptions that occur in cancer, the implications for cancer therapy are becoming increasingly evident.
Cancer is largely a disease that affects older people. The median age of a cancer diagnosis is 66 years, and one-fourth of new cancer cases are diagnosed in people aged 65 to 74. Adults are most likely to develop solid tumors such as breast, lung, colorectal, prostate, and bladder cancers. In children and adolescents 20 years … Read more
CRISPR, a powerful new tool for editing the DNA instruction manual in animals and humans, is proving a boon to cancer research. Scientists say CRISPR has dramatically accelerated the process of making animal models of cancer and is speeding the search for new molecular targets for cancer drugs. The technique is also being used in … Read more
Judy Wilkins tried four different chemotherapy regiments over 18 grueling months to try to put her lymphoma into remission. Her team never could. But thanks to CAR T-cell therapy, an emerging immunotherapy treatment that is showing great promise in clinical trials nationwide, Wilkins is cancer-free. CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) T-cell therapy is a form of cellular … Read more
While blood cancers known as adult histiocytic disorders are very rare and many patients do well with today’s treatments, researchers are working to improve outcomes with therapies targeted to newly discovered mutations – and they are about to begin testing immunotherapies, too. Histiocytic disorders involved overproduction of immune white cells, histiocytes, that attack tissues in … Read more
In the high-stakes contest of hide-and-seek between cancer cells and the human immune system, the advantage doesn’t always lie with the body’s defenders. A new approach to treatment, known as CAR T-cell therapy, may shift that balance of power. Cancer cells conceal themselves from the immune system not by barricading themselves in an impenetrable shell, … Read more
In March 2016, Ollie the pug, a therapy dog at Boston Children’s Hospital, paid a bedside visit to 7-year-old Carter Mock. Both dog and boy lost limbs to osteosarcoma, a cancer of the bone. Ollie’s left front leg was amputated at the shoulder. After removing the tumor in Carter’s left leg bone, surgeons fashioned a … Read more
Along with chemotherapy, radiation therapy is a common method for treating cancer; about half of patients receive the therapy, which uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells, during the course of their treatment. While radiation therapy is effective against cancer cells, it also leaves its mark on any normal cells it comes … Read more
Felipe Estrela thought things couldn’t get tougher when he was diagnosed with a rare soft tissue cancer called biphasic synovial sarcoma in 2014. Then, shortly after having a tumor the size of a small football removed from his right leg, the 29-year-old faced a new challenge: an above-the-knee amputation. A husband and father of three … Read more
This post originally appeared on Cancer Research Catalyst, the official blog of the American Association for Cancer Research. It was originally published Jan. 10, 2017. By Srivani Ravoori, PhD As we step into 2017, a big question looming in the minds of all stakeholders in the cancer research arena is: What is the future of … Read more
Olivia Bowie says she’s never been one to make New Year’s resolutions. Since she couldn’t keep commitments like eating healthier or working out more, she didn’t bother making them, the college student jokes. Then, in 2015, doctors discovered she had rhabdomyosarcoma. “Being diagnosed with cancer, and going through treatment, has changed my whole outlook,” says Bowie, … Read more
A cancer care team often involves quite a few players: oncologists, nurses, radiation oncologists, social workers, psychiatrists, and others. While these experts often improve patient outcomes, such a large multidisciplinary team can sometimes make communication and coordination difficult. Dana-Farber’s Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care department is working to change that. Palliative care clinicians are now … Read more
Medically reviewed by Charles Thomas, MS, MBA People infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDS are more susceptible to certain types of cancer than people who are not infected. In fact, some types of cancers are so common in people with HIV that they are referred to as AIDS-related or AIDS-defining cancers – including … Read more
While some may wonder, cancer is not contagious; a healthy person cannot catch cancer from a person who has the disease, nor can it be spread by close contact with a cancer patient. Cancer cells are far different from infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses. A cancer cell is essentially a normal cell whose … Read more